• A well balanced life based on ‘the joy of effort’: Olympic hype or a meaningful ideal? 

      Loland, Sigmund (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2012-05-10)
      A key goal in the Olympic value system of Olympism is the all-round cultivation of the individual. According to its so-called ‘fundamental principles’, Olympism is a ‘philosophy of life’ with ideals of ‘exalting and combining ...
    • Against genetic tests for athletic talent: the primacy of the phenotype 

      Loland, Sigmund (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2015-09)
      New insights into the genetics of sport performance lead to new areas of application. One area is the use of genetic tests to identify athletic talent. Athletic performances involve a high number of complex phenotypical ...
    • Anabolic–androgenic steroid use and correlates in Norwegian adolescents 

      Sandvik, Morten Renslo; Bakken, Anders; Loland, Sigmund (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      This paper surveys the prevalence and correlates of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) use among Norwegian adolescents, and examines the degree to which sports participation is a mediating or moderating factor to well-known ...
    • Attitudes towards use of performance-enhancing substances and body modification techniques : a comparison between elite athletes and the general population 

      Breivik, Gunnar; Hanstad, Dag Vidar; Loland, Sigmund (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2009-08)
      Medical and technological developments open up new possibilities for modifying the body and enhancing performance in various areas of life. This study compares attitudes among Norwegian elite athletes (n ¼ 234) with ...
    • Biomedisinsk teknologi i idrett: hvor går grensene? 

      Loland, Sigmund (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2010-06)
      I denne artikkelen drøfter jeg bruk av biomedisinsk teknologi i prestasjonsfremmende hensikt i konkurranseidrett. Mer presist utforsker jeg mulighetene for å skille mellom etisk akseptabel og etisk uakseptabel bruk. Jeg ...
    • Caster Semenya, athlete classification, and fair equality of opportunity in sport 

      Loland, Sigmund (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2020)
      According to the Differences of Sex Development (DSD) Regulations of the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), Caster Semenya and other athletes with heightened testosterone levels are considered ...
    • Classification in sport: A question of fairness 

      Loland, Sigmund (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      Competitor classification schemes have been a part of sport since its origins. Eligibility criteria have developed towards inclusion and increasing diversity. The pool of competitors has expanded from the ancient Olympic ...
    • ‘Clean athlete status’ cannot be certified: Calling for caution, evidence and transparency in ‘alternative’ anti-doping systems 

      Petróczi, Andrea; Backhouse, Susan H.; Boardley, Ian D.; Saugy, Martial; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Viret, Marjolaine; Ioannidis, Gregory; Ohl, Fabien; Loland, Sigmund; McNamee, Mike (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2020)
      Athletes, sponsors and sport organisations all have a vested interest in upholding the values of clean sport. Despite the considerable and concerted efforts of the global anti-doping system over two decades, the present ...
    • Elite athletes' duty to provide information on their whereabouts: Justifiable anti-doping work or an indefensible surveillance regime? 

      Hanstad, Dag Vidar; Loland, Sigmund (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2009-01)
      In this article, we explain and reflect critically upon the athlete whereabouts reporting system in top-level sports initiated by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). This system makes it compulsory for athletes who are ...
    • The ethics of performance-enhancing technology in sport 

      Loland, Sigmund (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2009-10)
      Debates on sport technologies tend to engage. Sometimes they have a unifying effect. As is evident from the 1999 establishment of the World Antidoping Agency (WADA), there is a relatively strong consensus that the use of ...
    • Ethics of technologically constructed hypoxic environments in sport 

      Loland, Sigmund; Caplan, Arthur (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2008-07-08)
      With the use of technologically constructed hypoxic environments (TCHE) in soccer as our case, we propose four check points from which to evaluate new performance-enhancing technologies in sport. These are (I) Is the ...
    • Geolocalisation of athletes for out-of-competition drug testing: Ethical considerations. Position statement by the WADA Ethics Panel 

      Borry, Pascal; Caulfield, Timothy; Estivill, Xavier; Loland, Sigmund; McNamee, Michael; Knoppers, Bartha Maria (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      Through the widespread availability of location-identifying devices, geolocalisation could potentially be used to place athletes during out-of-competition testing. In light of this debate, the WADA Ethics Panel formulated ...
    • Harmonization of anti-doping work: myth or reality? 

      Hanstad, Dag Vidar; Skille, Eivind Å.; Loland, Sigmund (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2010-03-11)
      In order to examine the implementation of the World Anti Doping Agency's (WADA) policy of global harmonization of anti-doping work, a survey was conducted among the members of the Association of National Anti-Doping ...
    • Integrating Transwomen and Female Athletes with Differences of Sex Development (DSD) into Elite Competition: The FIMS 2021 Consensus Statement 

      Hamilton, Blair R.; Lima, Giscard Humberto Oliveira; Barrett, James; Seal, Leighton; Kolliari-Turner, Alexander; Wang, Guan; Karanikolou, Antonia; Bigard, Xavier; Löllgen, Herbert; Zupet, Petra; Ionescu, Anca; Debruyne, Andre; Jones, Nigel; Vonbank, Karin; Fagnani, Federica; Fossati, Chiara; Casasco, Maurizio; Constantinou, Demitri; Wolfarth, Bernd; Niederseer, David; Bosch, Andrew; Muniz-Pardos, Borja; Casajus, José Antonio; Schneider, Christian; Loland, Sigmund; Verroken, Michele; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Arroyo, Francisco; Pedrinelli, André; Natsis, Konstantinos; Verhagen, Evert; Roberts, William O.; Lazzoli, José Kawazoe; Friedman, Rogerio; Erdogan, Ali; Cintron, Ana V.; Yung, Shu-Hang Patrick; van Rensburg, Dina C. Janse; Ramagole, Dimakatso A.; Rozenstoka, Sandra; Drummond, Felix; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Kumi, Paulette Y.O.; Twycross-Lewis, Richard; Harper, Joanna; Skiadas, Vasileios; Shurlock, Jonathan; Tanisawa, Kumpei; Seto, Jane; North, Kathryn; Angadi, Siddhartha S.; Martinez-Patiño, Maria Jose; Börjesson, Mats; Di Luigi, Luigi; Dohi, Michiko; Swart, Jeroen; Bilzon, James Lee John; Badtieva, Victoriya; Zelenkova, Irina; Steinacker, Jurgen; Bachl, Norbert; Pigozzi, Fabio; Geistlinger, Michael; Goulis, Dimitrios G.; Guppy, Fergus; Webborn, Nick; Yildiz, Bulent O; Miller, Mike; Singleton, Patrick; Pitsiladis, Yannis P. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      Sport is historically designated by the binary categorization of male and female that conflicts with modern society. Sport’s governing bodies should consider reviewing rules determining the eligibility of athletes in the ...
    • Justifying anti-doping: The fair opportunity principle and the biology of performance enhancement 

      Loland, Sigmund; Hoppeler, Hans (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2011-10-28)
      Doping is a complex moral and scientific dilemma and its prevention has led to a costly but less than perfect control system implemented worldwide by the World Anti-doping Agency (WADA). For a substance or method to be ...
    • Morgan, the ‘Gratuitous’ Logic of Sport, and the Art of Self-Imposed Constraints 

      Loland, Sigmund (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      Sport occupies a significant role in modern society and has a wide following. In his Leftist Theories of Sport (LTS), Morgan examines what he considers to be a degradation of modern sport and the lack of proper critical ...
    • Performance-Enhancing Drugs, Sport, and the Ideal of Natural Athletic Performance 

      Loland, Sigmund (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      The use of certain performance-enhancing drugs (PED) is banned in sport. I discuss critically standard justifications of the ban based on arguments from two widely used criteria: fairness and harms to health. I argue that ...
    • Philosophical reflections on the mission of the European College of Sport Science: Challenges and opportunities 

      Loland, Sigmund; McNamee, Mike (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2017)
      The European College of Sport Science (ECSS) was established in part to promote the integrated study of sports and related phenomena from multi- and interdisciplinary perspectives. There are significant and enduring ...
    • The poetics of everyday movement: Human movement ecology and urban walking 

      Loland, Sigmund (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      Departing from the hegemonic position of epidemiology in population physical activity (PA) research and policy, I argue for the significance of a complementary, holistic approach: human movement ecology (HME). The argument ...
    • Simon on Luck and Desert in Sport: A Review and Some Comments 

      Loland, Sigmund (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2015-11-30)
      During the 1000-meter short track speed skating event of the 2002 Salt Lake Winter Olympic Games, a series of extraordinary situations arose.1 The Australian skater Steven Bradbury won what is perhaps the most unexpected ...