The effect of maximum strength training vs. combined strength/plyometrics training on strength and sprint performance in elite women's football: monitoring of training load and recovery
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This study consisted of two projects conducted in parallel. The aim of project I was to investigate the effect of, and difference between, two strength-training regimes over 10- weeks in female football players. The aim of project II was to investigate relationships between different load monitoring techniques, level of recovery and ratings of performance. Eleven players from a Norwegian elite female football club was included in project I, and ten players in project II. Participants in project I were split into two groups, plyometric (PLY, n=6) and maximum strength (MAX, n=5). Both groups performed two strengthtraining sessions a week for 10-weeks. MAX performed two maximum strength sessions, and PLY performed one maximum strength session and one plyometric session. Players was tested for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength in squat, bench-press and pull-down, as well as performance in 10- and 30-m sprint, countermovement jump (CMJ) on force platform, repeated sprint (6x30-m), Yo-yo intermittent recovery level 1 (Yoyo IR1) and muscle architecture pre- and post to the training period. For project II, load-monitoring data were collected through a series of methods including session rate of perceived exertion (sRPE), pre training wellness questionnaire (PTW), neuromuscular fatigue jump test (NMF), and coaches votes (CV). Both groups had a substantial increase in 1RM squat (PLY = 10.4±7.1 kg effect size; ES=0.80, MAX = 18.1±7.7 kg ES=0.80; mean ± 90% confidence limits; CL), a moderate effect was found between groups being greater for MAX (ES = 0.85, 94% likely). MAX showed an increase in 10-m sprint time (0.04±0.03 s, ES = 0.41, 89% likely), but no other change was found for sprint or jump tests. A small increase in muscle thickness (PLY = 0.21±0.10 cm, MAX = 0.10±0.21 cm) was found for both groups, however the effect between groups was considered unclear (ES = 0.26). An increase in fascicle length was also evident (PLY = 0.60±0.89 cm, MAX 0.43±1.90 cm), but the between groups difference was trivial and unclear (ES = 0.19). Trivial difference was found in training load between groups throughout the period (ES = 0.17), and no consistent relationships were evident between the load monitoring techniques. 6 Both maximum strength- and combined maximum strength and plyometric training increases 1RM performance, but seem to have little effect on sprint and jump performance directly. Long familiarization periods seems to be necessary in order for the load monitoring data to be valuable and useful as a management system to assure development, and reduce the risk of injury.
Masteroppgave - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2014