Effects of Perioperative Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Administration on Soft Tissue Healing: A Systematic Review of Clinical Outcomes After Sports Medicine Orthopaedic Surgery Procedures
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionThe Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine. 2019, 7(4), 2325967119838873. 10.1177/2325967119838873
Background: The effects of perioperative nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on soft tissue healing in humans have yet to be established. Purpose: To systematically review the literature addressing the effects of perioperative NSAID administration on soft tissue healing and clinical patient outcomes. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: This review study was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. A review of the literature regarding the existing evidence for clinical effects of NSAID use on soft tissue healing was performed through use of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed (1980 to present), and MEDLINE. Inclusion criteria for articles were as follows: outcome studies after soft tissue (ligament, meniscus, tendon, muscle) healing after surgical procedure with perioperative NSAID administration, at least 1 year of follow-up, English language, and human participants. Results: A total of 466 studies were initially retrieved, with 4 studies satisfying all inclusion criteria. Among the surgical procedures reported, 93% of the patients (4144/4451) underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, 3% (120/4451) underwent rotator cuff repair, 3% (155/4451) underwent Bankart shoulder repair, and 1% (32/4451) underwent meniscal repair. The reported surgical failure rate among patients administered NSAIDs was 3.6% (157/4360). The reported surgical failure rate among control participants not given NSAIDs was 3.7% (147/3996). NSAID use showed no statistically significant effect on need for reoperation in meniscal repair (P = .99), ACL reconstruction (P = .8), and Bankart repair (P = .8) compared with no NSAID administration. Celecoxib administration had a significantly higher rate of retear (37%) after rotator cuff repair compared with ibuprofen (7%) (P = .009). Conclusion: Insufficient data are available to definitively state the effects of perioperative NSAIDs on soft tissue healing. Use of NSAIDs should be considered on a case-by-case basis and may not affect healing rates following either meniscal, ACL, rotator cuff, or Bankart repair. However, celecoxib (a selective COX-2 inhibitor) may inhibit tendon-to-bone healing in rotator cuff repair. Further research through clinical trials is required to fully determine whether NSAIDs have an adverse effect on soft tissue healing.
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