Effects of 150- And 450-mL Acute Blood Losses on Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Exercise Capacity
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionMedicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2021, 53(8), 1729-1738. 10.1249/MSS.0000000000002618
Purpose: This study investigated whether maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) and exercise capacity are affected by small acute blood loss (150 mL) and elucidated compensatory mechanisms. Methods: Thirteen male subjects (V˙O2max, 63 ± 9 mL·kg−1·min−1; mean ± SD) performed incremental exercise to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer in three experimental conditions: in euvolemia (control; blood volume [BV], 6.0 ± 0.7 L) and immediately after acute BV reductions of 150 mL (BVR150mL) and 450 mL (BVR450mL). Changes in plasma volume (PV) and BV during exercise were calculated from hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, and hemoglobin mass (carbon monoxide rebreathing). Results: The reduction in V˙O2max per milliliter of BVR was 2.5-fold larger after BVR450mL compared with BVR150mL (−0.7 ± 0.3 vs −0.3 ± 0.6 mL·min−1·mL−1, P = 0.029). V˙O2max was not significantly changed after BVR150mL (−1% ± 2%, P = 0.124) but reduced by 7% ± 3% after BVR450mL (P < 0.001) compared with control. Peak power output only decreased after BVR450mL (P < 0.001). At maximal exercise, BV was restored after BVR150mL compared with control (−50 ± 185 mL, P = 0.375) attributed to PV restoration, which was, however, insufficient in restoring BV after BVR450mL (−281 ± 184 mL, P < 0.001). The peak heart rate tended to increase (3 ± 5 bpm, P = 0.062), whereas the O2 pulse (−2 ± 1 mL per beat, P < 0.001) and vastus lateralis tissue oxygenation index (−4% ± 8% points, P = 0.080) were reduced after BVR450mL, suggesting decreased stroke volume and increased leg O2 extraction. Conclusion: The deteriorations of V˙O2max and of maximal exercise capacity accelerate with the magnitude of acute blood loss, likely because of a rapid PV restoration sufficient to establish euvolemia after a small but not after a moderate blood loss.
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