‘Richness in ends, simpleness in means!’ on Arne Naess’s version of deep ecological friluftsliv and its implications for outdoor activities
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionSport, Ethics and Philosophy. 2020, 14(2020), Artikkel 1789719. 10.1080/17511321.2020.1789719
The increasing global warming and the loss of biodiversity should concern us all. Some feel that outdoor activities, which take place in natural surroundings, should have a special obligation to change. In this article I present an example of what an outdoor life practice that responds to the ecological crisis could look like. I use the simple Norwegian outdoor life called friluftsliv, and the deep ecological version suggested by philosopher and climber Arne Næss (1912–2009) as an example and case. Naessian friluftsliv is interesting and relevant in three ways. First, Naess gave a philosophical basis for friluftsliv, building on deep ecology and Spinozism. Second, he presented content, norms and guidelines for a deep ecological friluftsliv. And third, he gave examples of such friluftsliv through his own practice of simple life in nature. Naess thus presents a radical alternative to present-day resource-consuming and specialized outdoor activities and nature sports. Finally, Naess’s version of deep ecological friluftsliv is discussed in relation to alternative theoretical approaches and to critical questions concerning friluftsliv as practice.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.