Towards a better understanding of the dynamics of sports coaching at the youth level: the coach's perspective: a study of the youth football coaches participating in the Norwegian arm of the Promoting Adolescent Physical Activity (PAPA) project
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Background: This doctoral thesis was based on the Promoting Adolescent Physical Activity (PAPA) project (Duda et al., 2013). Specifically, this doctoral thesis focused on the Norwegian arm, thereby aiming to acquire detailed information about volunteer youth football coaches who provide sports coaching to young athletes. Guided by Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci and Ryan, 2012) and Achievement Goal Theory (AGT; Nicholls, 1989), the doctoral thesis set out to investigate important aspects related to the role of volunteer youth sport coaches, suggesting that previous research has overlooked key factors in terms of theory and methodology, with potential implications for improved understanding of the dynamics operating within the coach-athlete relationship. Objectives: The purpose of this doctoral thesis was four-fold: (a) to investigate the potential psychological costs and benefits of providing different styles of coaching to young athletes for coaches themselves, (b) to gain insights into what coaches considered to be the merits of participating in the Norwegian arm of the Empowering Coaching™ training program (ECTP; Duda et al., 2013), (c) to validate a questionnaire that measures coaches’ self-report of their own empowering and disempowering behaviors, and (d) to investigate the effectiveness of the ECTP on coaches’ self-reported empowering and disempowering behaviors. Design: Articles I and IV were cross-sectional studies. Article II was a prospective study. In Article III, a sequential mixed-methods design was used. Finally, Article V utilized a cluster randomized controlled trial design. Method: The total sample consisted of 280 youth football coaches (257 males; 23 females), assigned to either the intervention (n = 193; M = 41.99 years, SD = 6.32; males n = 174, females n = 19) or the control group (n = 87; M = 43.19 years, SD = 5.15; males n = 83; females n = 4) of the Norwegian arm of the PAPA project (Duda et al., 2013).Article I: Solstad, B. E., Van Hoye, A. and Ommundsen, Y. (2015). Social-Contextual and Intrapersonal Antecedents of Coaches’ Basic Need Satisfaction: The Intervening Variable Effect of Providing Autonomy-Supportive Coaching. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 20, 84-93. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.05.001Article II: Solstad, B. E., Ivarsson, A., Haug, E. M. and Ommundsen, Y. (Submitted). Providing Empowering and Disempowering Behaviors to Young Athletes: Effects on Coaches’ Late-Season Well-Being. International Sport Coaching Journal.Article III: Solstad, B. E., Larsen, T., Holsen, I., Ivarsson, A., Ronglan, L. T. and Ommundsen, Y. (Re-Submitted). Pre- to Post-Season Differences in Empowering and Disempowering Behaviors among Youth Football Coaches: A Sequential Mixed Methods Study. Sports Coaching Review.Article IV: Solstad, B. E., Stenling, A., Wold, B., Heuzé, J. P., Sarrazin, P. and Ommundsen, Y. (Submitted). A Bayesian Approach to the Validation of the Empowering and Disempowering Motivational Climate Questionnaire-Coach (EDMCQ-C). Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science.Article V: Solstad, B. E., Solberg, P. A., Wold, B., Samdal, O., Ronglan, L. T., Ivarsson, A. and Ommundsen, Y. (Manuscript in Preparation). The Effects of the Norwegian Arm of the Empowering Coaching™ Training Program on Coaches’ Self-Reported Behaviors – A Bayesian Approach.
Avhandling (doktorgrad) - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2017